The DASS Explorer is a web-based application developed using the R programming language to examine depression, anxiety and stress scores as captured by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). This R Shiny web application is allows users to explore over 30,000 deidentified online responses to the instrument.

The Instrument

The DASS is a 42 item self-report instrument that is designed to measure negative emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. The instrument was developed by researched from the University of New South Wales (Australia). The psychometric properties of the DASS-42 have been validated in previous research demonstrating satisfactory validity and reliability (Bilgel & Bayram, 2010; Habibi, Dehghani, Pooravari & Salehi, 2017; Hekimoglu et al., 2012).

The Data

The underlying raw data set originates from an online version of the DASS-42. The data includes responses to an Open Psychometrics (2018) online interactive version of the DASS-42. The data contains over 30,000 responses to the interactive version of the DASS-42 and can be downloaded here.


Use the following options to change the score type and variables to group on. The plot will show facets based on two variables that you have selected.

The horizontal dashed line indicates the cutoff for the "Normal" range according to the measure selected. This cutoff is a conventional severity label according to the DASS-42 and it is suggested that scores still be examined.

Kruskal-Wallis (non-parametric) and ANOVA (parametric) tests are both used to compare whether differences are significant between multiple groups. Choose an appropriate test and interpret p values with caution.

Group Comparisons


Use the following options to select two types of scores to show the relationship. The plot will show facets based on the variable that you have selected.

The line plotted through the data points is the linear regression line. This is a line best fitted to the data to provide a model of the relationship between two variables. The R squared value is an estimate of the strength of the relationship between those two variables.

Relationships between Scores


Bilgel, N., & Bayram, N. (2010). Turkish Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42): Psychometric Properties. Archives of Neuropsychiatry/Noropsikiatri Arsivi, 47(2).

Habibi, M., Dehghani, M., Pooravari, M., & Salehi, S. (2017). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Persian Version of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-42): Non-Clinical Sample. Razavi International Journal of Medicine, 5(4).

Hekimoglu, L., Altun, Z. O., Kaya, E. Z., Bayram, N., & Bilgel, N. (2012). Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the 42 item depression anxiety stress scale (DASS-42) in a clinical sample. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 44(3), 183-198.

Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd. Ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.

Open Psychometrics. (2018). Interactive version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Retrieved from https://openpsychometrics.org/tests/DASS on 2 September 2019.


  • Added sample sizes in facet labels for correlations.


  • Added DASS total scores for selection.
  • Added a tab for checking relationships between scores.
  • Remove legend for scatterplot.


  • Added age group and country filters.


  • Added facets for the plot.
  • Added option for second variable and jitter option.
  • Included a "None" option in the variable options. Added statistical test option.
  • Added information about "Normal" cutoff for scores and link to the DASS-42 Overview page.